Kidney, Liver & Urinary

Acid Base Disorders

Acid-Base disorders occur when the pH levels in your blood are too high or too low. Metabolic acidosis is an excess of acid in the blood due to a poor kidney function, causing the pH to fall. Similarly, metabolic alkalosis is an excess of base in the blood that causes the pH to rise.

Alcoholic Cirrhosis

Cirrhosis is a condition that occurs due to heavy drinking. Excessive alcohol use causes liver damage.

Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

Alcoholic fatty liver disease means that there is extra fat in the liver. This condition affects those who are heavy alcohol users. Too much alcohol leads to a buildup of fat inside liver cells which makes it harder for the liver to function normally.

Alcoholic Hepatitis

Alcoholic hepatitis is inflammation of the liver caused by excessive alcohol use.

Autoimmune Liver Disease

Autoimmune liver diseases occur when the body’s immune system attacks the liver, causing inflammation. If left untreated, the liver inflammation may eventually cause cirrhosis of the liver, which may lead to liver cancer and liver failure.  

Chronic Kidney Disease

Chronic kidney disease occurs when your kidneys gradually lose their ability to filter wastes and excess fluids from your blood. This can lead to dangerous levels of fluid, electrolytes and wastes building up in your body.


Cirrhosis is a liver disease that develops overtime due to prolonged liver damage. This damage is usually the result of long-term alcohol abuse or hepatitis.  

Electrolyte Disorders

Electrolytes are important, naturally occurring chemicals in the body, such as calcium, chloride, magnesium, phosphate, potassium and sodium. In most cases, healthy kidneys help regulate electrolyte levels in your blood. An electrolyte disorder occurs when these levels are either too high or too low.


Glomerulonephritis is a disease that occurs when the part of the kidney that filters blood starts functioning poorly. When this happens, the kidney cannot get rid of wastes and extra fluid in the body.

Kidney Stones

Kidney stones are hard deposits of minerals and salts that stick together. They can cause severe pain painful when passing through the urinary tract. Some stones may be as small as a grain of salt, while others can be much larger. Some, called staghorn stones, fill the entire kidney.

Liver Failure

Liver failure is a life-threatening condition in which large parts of your liver are damaged and your liver is no longer functioning.

Liver Tumors

What are Liver Tumors? The liver is the largest internal organ. It breaks down and stores nutrients absorbed from the intestine, makes clotting factors to protect you from bleeding too much when you are cut, and breaks down alcohol, drugs, and toxic wastes in the blood. Liver tumors, also called hepatic tumors, are growths on or in the liver. Benign (non-cancerous) tumors sometimes grow large enough to cause health problems. Liver tumors that are malignant – growing into nearby tissue or spreading to other parts of the body – are liver cancer. There are many types of liver tumors and liver cancer.

Metabolic Liver Disease

A number of metabolic conditions involve the liver and can cause chronic liver disease, leading to cirrhosis and liver cancer.

Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a type of fatty liver disease not caused by alcohol use.

Pancreatic Cancer

The pancreas is located on the left side of the abdomen, above the intestines and behind the stomach. It is made up of exocrine and endocrine tissue. Exocrine tissue produces digestive juices (or enzymes) to help digest food. Endocrine tissue produces hormones such as insulin and glucagon to help the body regulate sugar. There are many types of pancreatic tumors. The most common and aggressive type is ductal adenocarcinoma. Other types include islet cell tumors, pancreatic lymphoma, and cystic tumors, such as intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN or IPMT). Any pancreatic tumor, as well as benign conditions such as pancreatitis, require diagnosis and treatment by expert specialists.


Pancreatitis is an inflammation of the pancreas that causes digestive enzymes to attack and damage surrounding tissues. It can be acute (striking suddenly) or chronic (ongoing). With chronic pancreatitis, the inflammation does not heal but worsens over time. This can lead to permanent tissue damage, diabetes, and severe pain.

Polycystic Kidney Disease

Polycystic kidney disease, or PKD, is a condition in which many cysts grow in the kidneys. When cysts grow too large or too numerous, they can reduce kidney function or lead to kidney failure. PKD is the fourth leading cause of kidney failure.

Portal Hypertension

Portal hypertension is an increase in the blood pressure within the portal vein, which carries blood from the stomach, intestine, spleen and pancreas to the liver. Scarring in the liver (cirrhosis) and blood clots (thrombosis) in the portal vein are common causes of portal hypertension.

Urologic Cancers

Urologic cancers affect the organs and structures of the male and female urinary system and the male reproductive system.

Viral Hepatitis

Viral hepatitis is inflammation of the liver caused by a viral infection. The most common types of viral hepatitis in the United States are hepatitis A, B and C. Less common causes of viral hepatitis include hepatitis D and E.