Cancers, Tumors & Blood

Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL)

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), also called acute lymphocytic leukemia, is a cancer of the white blood cells. In ALL, the bone marrow (the soft, spongy center of bones) produces too many lymphocytes, a type of white blood cells that do not mature as they should. These leukemia cells do not fight infection well, and they crowd out the healthy blood cells and platelets.

Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML)

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML), also called acute myelogenous leukemia or acute myelocytic leukemia, is a cancer of the white blood cells. In AML, the bone marrow (the soft, spongy center of bones) produces too many abnormal white blood cells. Normal white cells fight infection, but the abnormal cells produced in AML do not. The abnormal cells build up in the bone marrow and crowd out the healthy blood cells and platelets.

Adrenal Tumors

Adrenal tumors can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign adrenal tumors are called adrenal adenomas. They are usually less than two inches in length and usually occur in just one gland (but can occur in both). Malignant adrenal tumors may be called adrenal carcinoma, adrenocortical cancer, or adrenal cortical cancer. Most cancers found in the adrenal gland actually started in other organs and spread to the adrenal glands. These are not adrenal cancer and they are named after their initial location in the body (such as lung cancer) and receive that type of treatment.


Anemia is a condition in which the number of red blood cells or level of hemoglobin (the protein inside red blood cells that carries oxygen) is lower than normal. While many types of anemia are mild and easily corrected, certain types of anemia can be severe, chronic, or life-threatening.

Basal Cell Carcinoma

Basal cell carcinoma is a type of skin cancer that involves the basal cells, which are found in the deepest layer of the epidermis (the outermost layer of the skin). Like all skin cancers, basal cell carcinoma is usually caused by ultraviolet radiation from sunshine or tanning beds, but genetic defects also can trigger basal cell carcinoma to develop. Basal cell carcinoma is the most common form of skin cancer. It almost never grows beyond the original site of the tumor. Only in very rare cases does it spread to other parts of the body or become life-threatening. Nevertheless, it can be blemishing if not treated promptly.

Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common type of noncancerous tumor that leads to enlargement of the prostate gland in men. Common symptoms include lower urinary tract issues, such as increased urination, poor urinary flow and the urgent need to urinate.

Bladder Cancer

The bladder is an organ in the pelvis that stores urine before it leaves the body. Bladder cancer occurs when cells in the bladder grow uncontrollably and eventually form a tumor. Usually, bladder cancer will start in the innermost lining of the bladder, called the urothelium or transitional epithelium. If the bladder cancer grows into the other layers in the bladder wall, it becomes more advanced and may be more difficult to treat.

Blood Disorders

Blood disorders fall into three broad categories: acquired blood disorders, inherited blood disorders (also called congenital blood disorders), and blood disorders that develop as a consequence of cancer or treatment for cancer.

Brain Tumors

Brain tumors can be benign (non-cancerous, non-aggressive) or malignant (aggressive), but both types are serious conditions that require immediate attention and expert treatment. Brain tumor treatment options vary significantly depending on the specific type of brain tumor and the stage of the disease.

Breast Cancer

Breast cancer occurs when cells in the breast grow out of control and form a tumor. Breast cancer almost always occurs in women, but occasionally is diagnosed in men.

Cancer Pain

Cancer pain is the discomfort associated with cancer tumors or treatment. There are many causes, but often the pain occurs when a tumor presses on your nerves or organs, or as a side effect to chemotherapy, radiation or surgery.

Cancer-Related Heart Disease

Some cancer treatments can cause heart disease, weakening of the heart muscle (cardiomyopathy), or heart tumors. Another condition, cardiac amyloidosis, is sometimes linked to multiple myeloma. While surgery can treat some heart tumors, primary or secondary cancerous tumors that cannot be surgically removed are often fatal.

Cervical Cancer

The cervix is the lowest part of the uterus (womb) and connects it to the upper vaginal canal. Cancers of the cervix generally develop from the lowest portion where the uterus and the vaginal canal meet. Cancers are either described as squamous, which are similar to skin cells, or glandular (adenocarcinoma), which are similar to mucus secreting cells of the gastrointestinal tract. Cervical cancers do not develop quickly from normal cervical cells, but gradually go through a progression from a precancerous state to cancer, a process which occurs as a result of exposure to the human papillomavirus (HPV).

Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a cancer in which the bone marrow (the soft, spongy center of bones) produces too many lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell. 

Chronic Myeloid Leukemia

Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), also called chronic myelogenous leukemia, is a type of blood cancer that affects a specific type of white blood cell, the myelocytes. This type of leukemia is caused when sections of two different chromosomes in your genes switch places and make a new abnormal one. This new chromosome causes your body to make abnormal cells, which crowd out the healthy cells and cause leukemia. 

Colorectal Cancer

Colorectal cancer is a cancer that starts in the colon or the rectum, and may be called colon cancer or rectal cancer or colorectal cancer. Most colorectal cancers begin as a growth called a polyp on the inner lining of the colon or rectum. Polyps are benign growths that can vary in size from less than a quarter of an inch to several inches. Some types of polyps can change into cancer over the course of several years, but not all polyps become cancer.

Cutaneous Lymphoma

Cutaneous lymphoma, also called skin lymphoma, is a rare type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma that affects the skin. It is a cancer of the lymphocytes (white blood cells), and there are two sub-types: B-lymphocyte (B-cell) cutaneous lymphoma and T-lymphocytes (T-cell) cutaneous lymphoma. Cutaneous lymphoma is sometimes incorrectly called a skin cancer because it is a cancer and it affects the skin. However, “skin cancer” refers to cancers that develop from skin cells (epidermal cells or melanocytes), and cutaneous lymphoma actually develops from blood cells.

Endometrial Cancer

Endometrial cancer occurs when cells in the endometrium, the inner lining of the uterus, grow out of control. Endometrial cancer is the most common type of uterine cancer and sometimes it is simply called uterine cancer.

Esophageal Cancer

Esophageal cancer, also called esophagus cancer, occurs when cells in the esophagus start to grow out of control and form a tumor. The esophagus is a muscular tube that connects the throat to the stomach. The inside of the esophagus has several layers. Esophageal cancer starts in the inner layer (the mucosa) and grows outward through the submucosa layer and muscle layer. Esophageal cancer is much more common in men than in women. Esophageal cancer risk factors include tobacco use, excessive alcohol consumption and excess body weight.

Head and Neck Cancers

Head and neck conditions include a wide range of malignant (cancerous) and benign diseases, including cancers of the larynx, pharynx or salivary glands, HPV-associated growths, advanced cancers of the skin in the head and neck region (melanoma, basal cell, and squamous cell carcinoma) or salivary gland cancers.

Hodgkin Lymphoma

Hodgkin lymphoma, also called Hodgkin disease, is a cancer of a part of the immune system called the lymph system, which is made up of lymph tissue. Lymph tissue is in many parts of the body, so Hodgkin lymphoma can start in almost any part of your body. The major sites of lymph tissue are the lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow, thymus, adenoids and tonsils and the digestive tract. 

Kidney Tumors and Kidney Cancer

Kidney tumors (also called renal tumors) are growths in the kidneys that can be benign or cancerous. Most do not cause symptoms and are discovered unexpectedly when you are being diagnosed and treated for another condition.

Laryngeal Cancer

Laryngeal cancer occurs when cells in the tissues of the larynx grow out of control and form tumors. The larynx, often called your voice box, is part of the throat and contains your vocal cords, which vibrate and make sound when air is directed against them. Risk factors for getting laryngeal cancer include use of tobacco products or drinking too much alcohol.

Liver Tumors and Liver Cancer

The liver is the largest internal organ. It breaks down and stores nutrients absorbed from the intestine, makes clotting factors to protect you from bleeding too much when you are cut, and breaks down alcohol, drugs, and toxic wastes in the blood. Liver tumors, also called hepatic tumors, are growths on or in the liver. Benign (non-cancerous) tumors sometimes grow large enough to cause health problems. Liver tumors that are malignant – growing into nearby tissue or spreading to other parts of the body – are liver cancer. There are many types of liver tumors and liver cancer.

Lung Cancer

There are two main types of lung cancer – small cell lung cancer and non-small cell lung cancer. Although the same techniques (radiation therapy, chemotherapy, surgery) are used to treat both, your treatment will be tailored depending on your diagnosis and clinical stage. Ninety percent of lung cancers occur in individuals with a history of smoking cigarettes. Cigar and pipe smoke are potentially more dangerous; they are associated with a lung cancer risk twice that for cigarette smokers. Exposure to air pollution, radiation and industrial chemicals such as asbestos, arsenic, nickel and chromium may also increase your risk for developing lung cancer.


Melanoma is a type of skin cancer that begins in melanocytes – the cells that produce the pigment melanin that colors the skin, hair and eyes. Melanocytes also form moles, where melanoma often develops. Melanoma is the most dangerous form of skin cancer. Melanoma is usually the result of DNA damage caused by ultraviolet radiation from sunshine or tanning beds, but genetic defects also can trigger melanoma to develop.

Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is a group of blood cancers that includes all types of lymphoma except Hodgkin lymphoma. Lymphomas are cancers that develop from lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell, and they develop within the lymph system. Lymph tissue is in many parts of the body, so non-Hodgkin lymphoma can start in almost any part of your body, usually within the lymph nodes.


Osteosarcoma is a malignant bone tumor. It is a type of sarcoma, which are cancerous tumors in the bone or soft tissues. Osteosarcoma is most common in teens and young adults, but osteosarcoma can occur at any age. In children and young adults, osteosarcoma usually develops in areas where the bone is growing quickly. Most tumors develop in the bones around the knee.

Ovarian Cancer

Ovarian cancer usually occurs in post-menopausal women but can affect women of all ages. The most common type of ovarian cancer is epithelial ovarian cancer, meaning the tumor starts in the epithelial covering of the ovary. Younger women are more likely to develop ovarian germ cell tumors (which start in young cells similar to the eggs contained within the ovary), and older women may develop ovarian stromal cell tumors, which start in the supporting tissue (stroma) contained within the ovary. Each type of ovarian cancer requires a different type of treatment.

Pancreatic Cancer

There are many types of pancreatic tumors. The most common and aggressive type is ductal adenocarcinoma. Other types include islet cell tumors, pancreatic lymphoma, and cystic tumors, such as intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN or IPMT). Any pancreatic tumor, as well as benign conditions such as pancreatitis, require diagnosis and treatment by expert specialists.

Prostate Cancer

Prostate cancer occurs when malignant cells build up in or on the surface of the prostate. The prostate is a gland that makes part of the seminal fluid. During ejaculation, the seminal fluid helps carry sperm out of the man's body as part of semen. The prostate surrounds the urethra, the tube through which urine flows. A healthy prostate is about the size of a walnut. If the prostate grows too large, it squeezes the urethra. This may slow or stop the flow of urine from the bladder to the penis.


A sarcoma is a cancerous tumor of the bone or soft tissue. Soft tissues are the tissues that connect, support, or surround the body's organs and structures. They include muscle, tendon, synovial tissue (around joints), fat, blood vessels, lymph vessels, and nerves. Sarcomas are divided into two main groups – bone sarcomas and soft tissue sarcomas. They are further sub-classified according to the type of cell found in the tumor. They all share certain microscopic characteristics and have similar symptoms.

Skin Cancer

Skin cancer occurs when skin cells grow out of control and form malignant tumors. It is usually the result of DNA damage caused by ultraviolet radiation from sunshine or tanning beds, but genetic defects also can trigger skin cancer to develop.

Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Squamous cell carcinoma is a type of skin cancer that involves the squamous cells, which form most of the skin’s outer layers (the epidermis). Like all skin cancers, squamous cell carcinoma is usually caused by ultraviolet radiation from sunshine or tanning beds, but genetic defects also can trigger squamous cell carcinoma to develop. Squamous cell carcinoma can occur on any area of the body, including the mucous membranes and genitals, but are most common the skin areas most exposed to the sun, including the rim of the ear, lower lip, face, scalp (on bald areas), neck, hands, arms and legs.

Stomach Cancer

Stomach cancer, also called gastric cancer, occurs when cells in the stomach grow out of control and produce malignant tumors in the stomach. Although people often refer to their entire abdomen as their “stomach,” it’s important that stomach cancer not be confused with other cancers that can occur in the abdomen – like colon cancer, liver cancer, pancreatic cancer, or cancer of the small intestines. Those cancers have different symptoms and treatments. Stomach cancers tend to develop slowly over many years. Long before stomach cancer fully develops, the inner lining (mucosa) of the stomach may experience pre-cancerous changes. These early changes rarely cause symptoms and therefore often go undetected.

Testicular Cancer

Testicular cancer occurs when cells in the testicles grow out of control and form tumors. The testicles are made up of several types of cells, each of which can develop into different types of testicular cancer.

Throat Cancer

There are two main types of throat cancer – pharyngeal cancer and laryngeal cancer. Pharyngeal cancer forms in the pharynx, the hollow tube that runs from behind your nose to the top of your windpipe. Sub-types of pharyngeal cancer include nasopharynx cancer (upper part of the throat), oropharynx cancer (middle part of the throat), and hypopharynx cancer (bottom part of the throat). Laryngeal cancer forms in the larynx, which is your voice box. Throat cancer is relatively uncommon compared to other types of cancer.

Thyroid Cancer

Thyroid cancer occurs when cells in the thyroid gland grow out of control and produce malignant tumors. The thyroid gland is located below the Adam’s apple in the front part of the neck. It generally cannot be seen or felt. It is butterfly shaped, with 2 lobes joined by a narrow central section. The thyroid gland has two main types of cells – follicular cells and C cells (also called parafollicular cells). Different cancers develop from each kind of cell, and each type requires a very different type of treatment. Other types of benign (non-cancerous) growths and tumors also can develop in the thyroid gland.

Uterine Cancer

Uterine cancer occurs when cells inside the uterus grow out of control and form tumors. There are different types of uterine cancer. The inside of the uterus has two layers of tissue – the endometrium (inner layer) and myometrium (outer layer), which is muscle tissue. The most common type of uterine cancer starts in the endometrium and is called endometrial cancer. Although the cervix is part of the uterus, cervical cancer is not considered a type of uterine cancer. Uterine cancer most often occurs after menopause.

Vaginal Cancer

Vaginal cancer occurs when cells in the tissue of the vagina grow out of control and form malignant tumors. The vagina is the canal leading from the cervix (the opening of uterus) to the outside of the body. When babies are born, they pass out of the mother’s body through the vagina.