Airway, Breathing & Lung


Asthma is a chronic disease that affects your airways (tubes that carry air in and out of your lungs). If you have asthma, the inside walls of your airways are swollen. The inflammation makes the airways very sensitive, and they tend to react strongly to things that you are allergic to or find irritating.


Bronchiectasis is a condition in which the bronchial tubes (airways) are thickened due to long-term inflammation and scarring. This leads to a build-up of mucus, frequent lung infections, and eventually, a decline in lung function.


Bronchitis is an inflammation of the airways. Chronic bronchitis is a serious condition when the bronchial tubes, which carry air to and from your lungs, become inflamed over a long period of time. This can cause a chronic cough.

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a group of lung diseases, including emphysema and chronic bronchitis. These diseases make breathing difficult. COPD can make it hard to catch your breath. Because breathing takes such hard work when you have COPD, you can become exhausted.

Cystic Fibrosis

Cystic fibrosis is an inherited disorder resulting from a gene mutation (a flaw in a gene). Cystic fibrosis can have severe complications, but ways to manage the disease have improved greatly over the past few decades.


Emphysema happens when the air sacs in the lungs become damaged. The air sacs, called alveoli, inflate and deflate as you breathe, exchanging the oxygen in the lungs. When the alveoli are damaged, it is difficult to breathe.


Pulmonary hypertension is high blood pressure in the arteries in your lungs. Pulmonary hypertension is dangerous because it can result in heart failure. It’s important to see a doctor if you experience symptoms of pulmonary hypertension.

Interstitial Lung Disease (ILD)

Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a group of respiratory disorders that vary in severity and affect adults of all ages. Because interstitial lung disease varies with respect to the severity of symptoms and prognosis, being diagnosed with ILD can be confusing and frightening to patients.

Lung Cancer

There are two main types of lung cancer – small cell lung cancer and non-small cell lung cancer. Although the same techniques (radiation therapy, chemotherapy, surgery) are used to treat both, your treatment will be tailored depending on your diagnosis and clinical stage. Ninety percent of lung cancers occur in individuals with a history of smoking cigarettes. Cigar and pipe smoke are potentially more dangerous; they are associated with a lung cancer risk twice that for cigarette smokers. Exposure to air pollution, radiation and industrial chemicals such as asbestos, arsenic, nickel and chromium may also increase your risk for developing lung cancer.

Mycobacterial Diseases (TB and MAI)

Mycobacterial diseases are infectious diseases caused by bacteria. TB refers to the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis. MAI refers to Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare (MAI), which is a term for two species of bacteria.


Pneumonia is a common infection that inflames the alveoli (air sacs) in one or both lungs. Bacteria, viruses or fungi cause the air sacs in the lungs to fill with fluid or pus.

Sleep Disorders

There are many different types of sleep disorders. You may find it hard to fall asleep or stay asleep (insomnia). Sleep apnea causes your breathing to pause while you’re asleep. Parasomnias (such as excessive night terrors or nightmares) and a number of other sleep disorders can impact your mood, productivity and health.

Tracheobronchomalacia (TBM)

Tracheobronchomalacia (TBM) is a condition of the airways that causes them to become weak and floppy and collapse with breathing. Normally the central airways (the trachea and bronchi) remain open when you breathe.