Heart & Vascular


Angina is chest pain caused by reduced blood flow to your heart muscle. It is a symptom of coronary artery disease (CAD), which occurs when the arteries supplying blood to the heart become blocked or narrowed.

Aortic Aneurysm and Aortic Dissection

An aortic aneurysm is a balloon-like bulge, caused by weakness or degeneration in the wall of the aorta, the body’s primary and largest artery that runs from the heart, through the chest and into the abdomen.

Aortic Valve Disease

The aortic valve controls the flow of blood pumped out of your heart from the left ventricle into the aorta, the main artery leading to the rest of the body. Aortic valve disease refers to damage to the aortic valve, causing it not to function properly.


An arrhythmia is a problem with the speed or rhythm of your heartbeat, caused by abnormal electrical activity in the heart. An arrhythmia can make your heart beat too fast, too slow, or with an irregular rhythm.

Atrial Fibrillation

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is an abnormal heart rhythm originating in the top two chambers of your heart (the atria). During atrial fibrillation, the atria beat out of sync with the lower two chambers of the heart (the ventricles). AF is the most common type of arrhythmia, or irregular heart rhythm.

Brugada Syndrome

Brugada syndrome is a genetic disorder that causes potentially life-threatening heart rhythm disturbances. Occurring in the lower chambers (ventricles) of your heart, these disturbances can lead to chaotic electrical activity that causes your heart to quiver and fail to pump blood effectively to the rest of your body. The result may be fainting and, eventually, cardiac arrest.

Cancer-Related Heart Disease

Some cancer treatments can cause heart disease, weakening of the heart muscle (cardiomyopathy), or heart tumors. Another condition, cardiac amyloidosis, is sometimes linked to multiple myeloma. While surgery can treat some heart tumors, primary or secondary cancerous tumors that cannot be surgically removed are often fatal.

Cardiac Sarcoidosis

Sarcoidosis is a poorly understood illness in which clumps of abnormal immune cells (granulomas) form, most typically in the lungs, but sometimes in the heart. Cardiac granulomas cause inflammation that can result in the scarring of heart tissue. Genetics are thought to be a significant factor in the development of sarcoidosis.

Carotid Artery Disease

Carotid artery disease (or carotid artery stenosis) occurs when the major arteries in your neck, which deliver oxygen-rich blood to your brain, become narrowed and potentially blocked by the buildup of plaque (atherosclerosis). The carotid arteries, located on either side of your neck, run from your aorta (in your chest) to your brain. Carotid artery disease is a form of peripheral artery disease.

Coronary Artery Disease

Your coronary arteries are the large blood vessels that supply your heart muscle with oxygen-rich blood. Coronary artery disease (CAD) occurs when these arteries become blocked. CAD, which typically builds up over decades, is the most common form of heart disease and is the leading cause of heart disease-related death worldwide.

Deep Vein Thrombosis

Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a blood clot that forms, usually in the leg veins, when your blood flow becomes very slow.

Diabetic Heart Disease

Heart disease is the most common long-term complication of diabetes. Diabetes is now regarded as one of the strongest risk factors for heart disease. The risk worsens when combined with other common risk factors for heart disease.

Heart Attack

A heart attack occurs when the coronary arteries become completely blocked by plaque rupture and thrombosis (blood clot formation), preventing blood flow to the heart muscle. If blood flow isn't restored quickly, the section of heart muscle becomes damaged from lack of oxygen and begins to die.

Heart Disease

“Heart disease” refers to many conditions that can affect different parts of your heart, or the way your heart works.

Heart Failure

Although it sounds frightening, heart failure is usually a chronic condition, meaning it can be treated and managed. Sometimes, heart failure can be cured.

High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

Blood pressure is the measurement of how forceful your blood is flowing through your blood vessels. Hypertension, or high blood pressure, occurs when your blood pressure is consistently too high.

High Cholesterol (Hyperlipidemia)

Having hyperlipidemia means there are too many lipids (fats) in your blood. Cholesterol and triglycerides are the two main types of fats in your blood; the more there is of each, the higher the risks to your heart and vascular health.

Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a common genetic condition that affects the heart muscle. HCM thickens the walls of the heart, limiting the amount of blood it’s able to pump throughout the body.

Long QT Syndrome

Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a rare disorder of the heart's electrical rhythm that can occur in otherwise healthy people. It can potentially cause fast, chaotic heartbeats that can lead to fainting. In some cases, your heart's rhythm may be so erratic that it can lead to sudden death. But in general, long QT syndrome is treatable.

Mitral Valve Disease

The mitral valve controls blood flow between the upper (atrium) and lower (ventricle) chambers on the left side of the heart. Mitral valve disease refers to damage to the mitral valve that causes it to function improperly.

Pericardial Disease (Pericarditis)

Pericarditis is an inflammation of the pericardium, the thin, double-layered, fluid-filled sac that covers the outer surface of your heart. The pericardium is designed to shield your heart from infection, as well as to keep the heart from expanding too much when blood volume rises.

Peripheral Aneurysm

Peripheral aneurysms are aneurysms that affect arteries other than the aorta or the brain. The most common complication stemming from a peripheral aneurysm is the formation of blood clots that may block blood flow through an artery.

Peripheral Artery Disease

Peripheral artery disease (PAD) affects an estimated eight to 12 million Americans. PAD, a circulation problem in which narrowed arteries reduce blood flow to your limbs, can increase the risk of stroke and heart attack. PAD may cause pain and sores, and potentially lead to loss of limb(s).

Pulmonary Embolism

A pulmonary embolism is the sudden blockage of a major artery in your lung, occurring when a blood clot that has developed in another part of your body breaks off and travels to the lungs. Pulmonary embolism is the most common type of cardiovascular disease, after heart attack and stroke.

Spider Veins

Spider veins are groups of thin capillaries (small blood vessels) located close to the surface of your skin. Spider veins mostly show up on your legs and face; on your legs, they often surround varicose veins. Though not a serious medical problem, spider veins are a cosmetic concern for many people.


Stroke is the 4th leading cause of death in the United States, but the leading cause of disability. Stroke is a brain injury that affects the brain’s blood supply.

Sudden Cardiac Arrest

Sudden cardiac arrest (also called sudden cardiac death) is death from an abrupt loss of heart function. Unless treatment with a defibrillator is given within minutes, death will occur shortly after symptoms appear.

Supraventricular Tachycardia

People with supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) often have an extra electrical circuit in their hearts and may occasionally experience very fast heart beats (arrhythmias) that are unrelated to exercise, fever or stress. When SVT occurs, the heart rate can reach up to 200 beats per minute or more.

Thoracic Outlet Syndrome

Thoracic Outlet Syndrome (TOS) involves compression of the nerves, arteries, and veins in the lower neck and upper chest area and can cause various symptoms in the arm, shoulder, and neck depending on anatomic structure most compressed. Symptoms include pain, swelling, tingling or numbness among others.

Varicose Veins

As many as 40 million Americans suffer from varicose veins, swollen veins that can be seen just under your skin's surface. Most commonly found in the legs or pelvic area, varicose veins are abnormal, dilated blood vessels that often look blue, bulging and twisted. Sometimes varicose veins are surrounded by thin red capillaries called spider veins.


“Vasculitis” is the term used for several disorders related to blood vessel inflammation. Vasculitis is classified as an autoimmune disease, because blood vessels become inflamed when your immune system attacks and damages your arteries and veins.

Venous Ulcers

Venous ulcers are open sores or wounds that recur or will not heal, developing after veins in the legs have been damaged and penetrating deep into the skin. Venous ulcers are usually found on the inner part of your leg, just above your ankles. Typically forming on your skin near varicose veins, venous ulcers may affect one or both legs.

Ventricular Tachycardia

Ventricular tachycardia (V-tach) is a type of abnormal heartbeat (arrhythmia) that starts in the lower chambers of the heart, the ventricles. Tachycardia, a fast heart rate, usually occurs when the electrical signals in your heart are sent too quickly. This keeps your heart from pumping enough blood and oxygen through your body. Most people with ventricular tachycardia have a heart rate of at least 170 beats per minute.

Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome

Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome is a type of arrhythmia characterized by an extra electrical pathway (circuit) in your heart. As a result, the electrical signal may arrive at the ventricles too soon. The condition can lead to episodes of rapid heart rate (tachycardia or supraventricular tachycardia). Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome is one of the most common causes of fast heart rate disorders in infants and children, and is believed to be a congenital heart defect.