Urologic cancers affect the organs and structures of the male and female urinary system and the male reproductive system.

Overview and Symptoms

Urologic cancers include:

These are relatively common cancers. In particular, prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men in the U.S. 

The symptoms of urologic cancer vary significantly depending on the specific type of urologic cancer.

Urologic Cancer Diagnosis

Doctors use a number of different imaging tests to screen for urologic cancer. The specific tests needed will vary depending on the type of urologic cancer you have. However, urologic cancer diagnostic tests may include:

  • Urine tests: Using a urine sample from normal urination, clinicians will determine if the urine contains tumor cells.
  • Cystoscopy: allows the doctor to see inside the body with a thin, lighted, flexible tube called a cystoscope
  • Biopsy: the removal of a small amount of tissue for examination under a microscope
  • Computed tomography (CT or CAT) scan: creates a 3-dimensional picture of the inside of the body using x-rays taken from different angles
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI):  uses magnetic fields, not x-rays, to produce detailed images of the body
  • Positron emission tomography (PET) scan: creates pictures of organs and tissues inside the body
  • Ultrasound: uses sound waves to create a picture of the internal organs
  • Blood tests: to check for increased blood levels of certain proteins


The specific treatment for urologic cancer will vary depending on the particular type of urologic cancer you have. However, it may include:

  • Surgery
  • Chemotherapy
  • Radiation therapy
  • Immunotherapy

Learn More

Patients with testicular cancer are treated through the Genitourinary Cancer Program, where leading oncologists, surgeons, radiation oncologists, radiologists, and pathologists provide state-of-the-art diagnosis and treatment.

Genitourinary Cancer Program