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Your surgeon may use a technique to monitor the recurrent laryngeal nerve, the nerve to the voicebox, during your procedure. Since the nerve lives very close to the thyroid and parathyroid, it’s the goal of every experienced thyroid surgeon to identify and preserve it.
According to the few published studies on this topic, it has not been proven that nerve monitoring prevents injuries to the recurrent laryngeal nerve. And it appears that surgeon experience and the nature of the thyroid disease are the most important predictors. Nevertheless, it remains a useful technique. It should be discussed with your surgeon whether it may be helpful, or should be used in a particular surgery.