Scottish Livingstone HospitalSLH is located in Molepolole, a large traditional village 60 km from the capital city of Botswana, Gaborone. Molepolole has a population of approximately 70,000 inhabitants within the Kweneng East district (190,000 inhabitants), which has an age-adjusted HIV prevalence of 32.1%. SLH is a 350-bed hospital offering inpatient and outpatient medicine and pediatric services, full obstetrics/gynecology care, surgical services, and an emergency department. It is staffed by generalist physicians.

SLH is a site for the National Antiretroviral Treatment Program. In this program, persons eligible for HAART include adults with an active or recent AIDS-defining illness (including tuberculosis) and/or CD4 cell count < 250 cells/mm3. The first-line and second- line government approved HAART regimens are similar to those used in the United States, and newer agents have been added as options for salvage therapy. DoctorsCD4 cell counts, plasma HIV-1 viral loads, routine chemistries, and hematology are available through the program for monitoring patients and making treatment decisions. Viral genotyping is available for clinical decision-making purposes at the time of second treatment regimen failure.