Surgical removal of the cancerous tissue is the primary treatment for melanoma.
The extent of the procedure depends on the stage of the cancer. Types of surgery include:
—The entire tumor along with a rim of normal, non-cancerous skin is cut away to make sure no more cancer cells remain in the skin. How much non-cancerous skin is cut away depends on how thick the tumor is. The wound is stitched together or covered with a skin graft and usually leaves a scar.
—This procedure, performed by specialized dermatologists, is designed to shave away cancer cells while leaving as much normal tissue behind. It is somewhat controversial in the management of melanomas, but many believe it is as effective as a wider, potentially more disfiguring surgical procedure. Mohs surgery is usually reserved for stage 0 or in-situ melanoma. The so-called “slow Mohs” combines features of both Mohs surgery and excision.
—If melanoma is present on a finger or toe, it
be necessary to amputate the cancerous part of that digit.
Therapeutic lymph node dissection
—If the cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes, some of those nodes will be surgically removed.
If melanoma has spread to other areas of the body, surgery of the tumor will not cure the melanoma. However, surgery may still be done to try to control the cancer.