| Therapeutic Dosages
| Therapeutic Uses
| What Is the Scientific Evidence for Inositol?
| Safety Issues
Inositol, unofficially referred to as "vitamin B
," is present in all animal tissues, with the highest levels in the heart and brain. It is part of the membranes (outer coverings) of all cells, and plays a role in helping the liver process fats as well as contributing to the function of muscles and nerves.
Inositol may also be involved in depression. People who are depressed may have lower than normal levels of inositol in their spinal fluid. In addition, inositol participates in the action of
a neurotransmitter known to be a factor in depression. (Neurotransmitters are chemicals that transmit messages between nerve cells.) For these two reasons, inositol has been proposed as a treatment for depression, and preliminary evidence suggests that it may be helpful.
Inositol has also been tried for other psychological and nerve-related conditions.
Inositol is not known to be an essential nutrient. However, nuts, seeds, beans, whole grains, cantaloupe, and citrus fruits supply a substance called phytic acid (inositol hexaphosphate, or IP6), which releases inositol when acted on by bacteria in the digestive tract. The typical American diet provides an estimated 1,000 mg daily.
Experimentally, inositol dosages of up to 18 g daily have been tried for various conditions.
Some but not all studies suggest that high-dose inositol may be useful for
Inositol has also been studied for
but the evidence remains far from conclusive. Other potential uses include
attention deficit disorder
According to double-blind studies enrolling over 400 people, inositol may help improve various symptoms of
polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)
, including infertility and weight gain.
There is also some preliminary evidence that inositol may be helpful for postmenopausal women who have
Another very small double-blind study found that inositol supplements could help reduce symptoms of
triggered or made worse by use of the drug
A small double-blind study failed to find inositol helpful for premenstrual dysphoric disorder, a severe form of
premenstrual syndrome (PMS)
Inositol is sometimes proposed as a treatment for
, but there have been no double-blind, placebo-controlled studies on this subject, and two uncontrolled studies had mixed results.
Inositol has also been investigated for potential
and there is some evidence that it may help reduce the side effects of chemotherapy in women with breast cancer.
What Is the Scientific Evidence for Inositol?
Small double-blind studies have found inositol helpful for
In one such trial, 28 depressed individuals were given a daily dose of 12 g of inositol for 4 weeks.
By the fourth week, the group receiving inositol showed significant improvement compared to the placebo group.
However, a double-blind study of 42 people with severe depression that was not responding to standard antidepressant treatment found no improvement when inositol was added.
frequently develop panic attacks, often with no warning. The racing heartbeat, chest pressure, sweating, and other physical symptoms can be so intense that they are mistaken for a heart attack. A small double-blind study (21 participants) found that people given 12 g of inositol daily had fewer and less severe panic attacks as compared to the placebo group.
A double-blind, crossover study of 20 individuals compared inositol to the antidepressant drug fluvoxamine (Luvox), a medication related to Prozac.
The results over 4 weeks of treatment showed that the supplement was at least as effective as the drug.
In a 6-week, double-blind study, 24 individuals with
received either placebo or inositol (2 g three times daily for a week, then increased to 4 g three times daily) in addition to their regular medical treatment.
The results of this small study failed to show statistically significant benefits; however, promising trends were seen that suggest a larger study is warranted.
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)
is a chronic endocrine disorder in women that leads to infertility, weight gain, and many other problems. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 136 women with PCOS were given inositol at a dose of 100 mg twice daily, while 147 were given placebo.
Over the study period of 14 weeks, participants given inositol showed improvement in ovulation frequency as compared to those given placebo. Benefits were also seen in terms of weight loss and levels of HDL ("good") cholesterol. Other studies have also found positive results.
consists of a cluster of conditions that promote cardiovascular disease, including obesity, unhealthy cholesterol and triglyceride levels, high blood pressure, and pre-diabetes. In one study, 80 postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome were treated with diet plus inositol (2 grams, twice daily) or diet plus placebo.
After 6 months of treatment, those in the inositol group had improvements in cholesterol and triglyceride levels, blood pressure, and insulin resistance (an indicator of pre-diabetes).
No serious ill effects have been reported for inositol, even with a therapeutic dosage that equals about 18 times the average dietary intake. However, no long-term safety studies have been performed.
Although inositol has sometimes been recommended for bipolar disorder, there is evidence to suggest inositol may trigger manic episodes in people with this condition.
If you have bipolar disorder, you should not take inositol unless under a doctor's supervision.
Safety has not been established in young children, women who are pregnant or nursing, and those with severe liver and kidney disease. As with all supplements used in very large doses, it is important to purchase a reputable product, because a contaminant present even in small percentages could add up to a real problem.