There is no known cure for Turner syndrome. However, there are treatments for many of the associated problems. These include:
If given early enough in childhood, growth hormone can improve growth and increase final adult height by a few inches. However, not all children have a good response to growth hormone. Bone-lengthening surgery can increase the final height of children with Turner syndrome who have not responded adequately to growth hormone. However, this lengthy treatment requires multiple surgeries, long periods of disability, and risks many potential complications.
Estrogen Replacement Therapy
Estrogen replacement therapy induces the normal physical changes of adolescence, including breast growth and menstrual periods. Women with Turner syndrome usually take estrogen-progesterone treatment until at least menopause to protect their bones from osteoporosis.
Treatment for Other Medical Conditions
Other medical problems are carefully monitored and treated, including:
From 5%-10% of children with Turner syndrome are found to have a severe constriction of the major blood vessel coming out from the heart, a condition known as "coarctation of the aorta". This can be surgically corrected as soon as it is diagnosed.
Doctors have identified a serious condition called aortic dissection (bleeding in the wall of aorta) as being a cause of death in women with Turner syndrome.
As many as 15% of adults with Turner syndrome are reported to have "bicuspid aortic valves," meaning that the major blood vessel from the heart has only two rather than three components to the valve regulating blood flow. It requires careful medical monitoring, since bicuspid aortic valves can deteriorate or become infected. In general, it is advised that all persons with Turner syndrome undergo annual cardiac evaluations.
In the absence of severe heart defects at birth, women survive into adulthood with normal intelligence. However, girls and women with Turner syndrome may have difficulty with specific visual-spatial coordination tasks (eg, mentally rotating objects in space) and learning math (geometry, arithmetic).
Other recommendations for life-long management of this disorder include:
Cardiac evaluation including both
magnetic resonance angiography
should be performed.
- Puberty should be induced at an age-appropriate time and should not be delayed in hopes of achieving greater adult height.
- Comprehensive psychological evaluation should be done to detect learning disorders.
Lifetime surveillance should be carried out looking for hearing problems, thyroid disease,
, diabetes, and cholesterol elevation.