|Vitamin or Mineral
||Why You Need It
||Recommended Dose (for adults, ages 19-50)
||Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL)
||What Happens if You Overdo It
||Good Food Sources
||Vision, growth, and immune function
||900 micrograms per day (µg/d) for men (equivalent to 2,997 International Units), 700 µg/d for women (2,333 IU/d)
||3,000 µg/d (10,000 IU/d)
||Too much may cause hair loss, nausea, and vomiting, and may increase the risk of bone fracture. Very high intakes can cause liver disease and fetal malformations.
||Preformed vitamin A sources include fortified cereal, eggs, and dairy products; Provitamin A carotenoids (like beta-carotene), found in deep orange and dark green fruits and vegetables
||Protein metabolism, neurotransmitter formation, red blood cell function, and hormone function
||1.3 milligrams per day (mg/d)
||If taken at very high doses, may result in painful neurologic symptoms and difficulty walking.
||Fortified cereals, beans, meat, poultry, fish, and some fruits and vegetables
Folic acid (folate)
||DNA metabolism as well as the metabolism of several important amino acids
||High doses, while safe in themselves, may mask symptoms of, the rare disease, pernicious anemia allowing it to progress unchecked.
||Fruits and vegetables, fortified grain foods
||Necessary for energy metabolism
||16 mg/d for men, 14 mg/d for women
||In doses fifty times higher than the tolerable upper intake level, can damage the liver and cause severe gastrointestinal problems.
||Meat, poultry, fish, fortified cereals, legumes, milk, and seeds
||It is required for the synthesis of collagen and the neurotransmitter norepinephrine
||90 mg/d for men, 75 mg/d for women
||Generally safe, but at high doses can cause diarrhea and might increase risk of urinary tract stones.
||It helps to form and maintain strong bones, plus is needed to maintain blood levels of calcium and phosphorus
||Continuous very high intakes might lead to damage to the heart, blood vessels and kidneys due to calcification.
||Fatty fish (herring, salmon, sardines), eggs from hens that have been fed vitamin D, and fortified milk; exposure to sunlight provides another important source
||An essential component of hundreds of proteins involved in the transport and storage of oxygen
||8 mg/d for men, 18 mg/d for women
||Can poison a child, causing nausea, vomiting, lethargy, fever, difficulty breathing, coma, and even death; in adults excess iron is theorized to increase risk of heart disease.
||Lean red meats, shellfish, legumes, dried fruit, and green leafy vegetables (Note: iron from non-meat sources is best absorbed when vitamin C is also present)
||Necessary for the function of numerous enzymes
||Toxic effects of overdosage include hair and nail brittleness and loss, gastrointestinal disturbances, skin rashes, fatigue, irritability, and nervous system abnormalities.
||Organ meats, seafood, and grains