Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease. It causes pain, swelling, stiffness, and loss of function in the joints.
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The doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. To be diagnosed with RA, you must have at least one swollen or tender joint or a history of a swollen joint. How many joints, and which joints are involved, will help aid your doctor in the diagnosis. The doctor will also rule out other conditions that may have similar symptoms.
Tests may include:
- Blood tests to determine if you have an autoimmune disease
Imaging tests, such as
, or an
There is no cure for RA. The goals of treatment are to:
- Relieve pain
- Reduce inflammation
- Slow down joint damage
- Improve functional ability
There are a variety of medications to treat the pain and inflammation of RA. In some cases, medications may be used in combination. These may include:
- Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)
- Cyclooxgenase-2 or COX-2 inhibitors
- Nonbiologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs)
- Biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs
Medication may be taken by mouth, applied to the skin, or injected into the joint.
Rest and Exercise
Rest reduces active joint inflammation and pain and fights fatigue. Exercise is important for maintaining muscle strength and flexibility. It also preserves joint mobility.
These steps may help relieve stiffness, weakness, and reduce inflammation:
- Maintain a balance between rest and exercise
- Attempt mild strength training
- Participate in aerobic exercise, such as, walking, swimming, or dancing
- Avoid heavy-impact exercise
- Control weight
- Participate in a physical therapy program
Splints applied to painful joints may reduce pain. Devices that help with daily activities can also reduce stress on joints. Devices include:
- Zipper extenders
- Long-handled shoehorns
- Specially designed kitchen tools
can ease the difficulties of living with a chronic, painful disease. Participating in an exercise program or joining a
are two strategies you can use to reduce stress.
Cognitive behavioral therapy
, a form of talk therapy, and
may also offer benefits in reducing your pain and improving your ability to cope with RA.
Joint replacement and tendon reconstruction help relieve severe joint damage.