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Definition | Causes | Risk Factors | Symptoms | Diagnosis | Treatment | Prevention


Vulvodynia is chronic pain or discomfort of the vulva. The vulva includes the:

  • Labia majora and labia minora
  • Clitoris
  • Vaginal opening

Female Genitalia


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The cause of vulvodynia is not known. Some possibilities include:

  • Injury or irritation of vulvar nerves
  • Inflammed tissue
  • Abnormal response to infection or trauma

Risk Factors

Vulvodynia is more common in women who are younger. Other factors that may increase the chance of vulvodynia include:

  • History of vulvodynia
  • Chronic pain or disorders associated with chronic pain
  • Sleep disturbances
  • Some mental health disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder
  • Recurrent yeast infections
  • Frequent use of antibiotics
  • Irritation to the genitals by soaps or detergents
  • Genital rashes
  • Previous treatment or surgery to the external genitals
  • Pelvic nerve irritation or muscle spasms


Symptoms may include:

  • Pain, which may come and go
  • Burning
  • Stinging
  • Irritation
  • Rawness


Your doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. It may include a pelvic exam. The affected area may need to be examined closely. This can be done using a colposcope to magnify the area.

Testing may include:

  • Tests to check for bacteria and/or yeast
  • Biopsy


Talk with your doctor about the best treatment plan for you. Options include:


  • Topical medications that are applied to the skin, such as corticosteroids, estrogen, or anesthetics
  • Antidepressants
  • Anticonvulsants
  • Prescription pain relievers

Physical Therapy

Therapy can help you strengthen and relax your pelvic muscles. This will ease muscle spasms. You may be referred to a doctor who specializes in pelvic floor issues.

Other Treatments

Suggested treatments for vulvodynia include:

  • Injections
  • Nerve stimulation or nerve blocks
  • Surgery


There are no current guidelines to prevent vulvodynia.





  • ACOG Practice Bulletin No. 93: Diagnosis and management of vulvar skin disorders. Obstet Gynecol. 2008;111:5):1243-1253. Reaffirmed 2013.
  • What is vulvodynia? National Vulvodynia Association website. Available at: Accessed June 26, 2013.
  • Vulvodynia. American Academy of Family Physicians Family Doctor website. Available at: Updated August 2010. Accessed June 26, 2013.
  • Vulvodynia. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: Updated September 25, 2013. Accessed June 26, 2013.
  • Vulvodynia. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development website. Available at: Updated April 3, 2013. Accessed June 26, 2013.
  • 4/7/2014 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance. Reed BD, Legocki LJ, Plegue MA, Sen A, Haefner HK, Harlow SD. Factors associated with vulvodynia incidence. Obstet Gynecol. 2014;123(2.1):225-231.

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