A shoulder sprain is a stretching or partial tearing of the ligaments and capsule that support the shoulder, specifically, the glenohumeral joint. Ligaments are strong bands of tissue that connect bones to each other. The glenohumeral joint is where the upper arm bone, humerus, and the cup of the shoulder blade meet.
The major ligaments of the glenohumeral joint are the superior, middle, and inferior glenohumeral ligaments. The ligaments serve to stabilize the highly mobile joint. The capsule of the glenohumeral joint is thinner tissue that encloses and supports the shoulder joints.
An acute mild injury to the glenohumeral ligaments can be considered a shoulder sprain. More severe injury can result in dislocation.
Capsule of Glenohumeral Joint
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A risk factor is something that increases your chance of getting a disease, condition, or injury.
Risk factors for shoulder sprain include:
- Playing sports
- Poor coordination
- Poor balance
- Inadequate flexibility and strength in muscles and ligaments
- Loose joints or connective tissue disorders