There are many possible causes of female infertility. Tubal disease and endometriosis (a condition in which uterine tissue begins to grow where it shouldn't) account for 50% of female infertility; failure of ovulation is the cause of about 30%; and cervical factors cause another 10%.
An immense industry has sprung up around correcting female infertility, using techniques that range from hormone therapy to in vitro (test tube) babies. Although these methods have their occasional stunning successes, there is considerable controversy about the high cost and low rate of effectiveness of fertility treatments in general. The good news is that apparently infertile women often become pregnant eventually with no medical intervention at all.
Proposed Natural Treatments
Women with a condition known as
polycystic ovary syndrome
(PCOS) may suffer from infertility. A
double-blind, placebo controlled study
evaluated the effectiveness of
in 150 women with PCOS who had previously failed to respond to the fertility drug
Participants were given clomiphene plus placebo or clomiphene plus 1.2 g daily of NAC. The results indicated that combined treatment with NAC plus clomiphene was markedly more effective than clomiphene taken with placebo. Almost 50% of the women in the combined treatment group ovulated as compared to about 1% in the clomiphene alone group. Pregnancy rate in the combined treatment group was 21%, as compared to 0% in the clomiphene alone group.
), an herb with estrogen-like effects, drew the attention of researchers who were interested in whether it might be helpful for women with unexplained infertility who were also being treated with clomiphene, a commonly used medication to induce ovulation, but had yet to conceive. Roughly 120 women were randomly divided into two groups. Both groups continued to receive clomiphene, but the women in one of the groups also received 120 mg of black cohosh. Pregnancy rates were significantly higher in the black cohosh plus clomiphene group compared to the clomiphene only group.
In a small double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, use of
at a dose of 500 mg twice daily resulted in a pregnancy rate of 60%, as compared to 20% in the placebo group.
This difference was
Because of its effects on the hormone prolactin, the herb
has been tried as a fertility treatment.
However, the only properly designed study of this potential use was too small to return conclusive results.
A larger study evaluated a combination containing chasteberry,
, and multiple vitamins and minerals.
In this double-blind study, 93 women experiencing infertility were given either the combination treatment or placebo for three months. After three months, 26% of the women given the real treatment were pregnant as opposed to 10% of those in the placebo group, a difference that was statistically significant.
Weak evidence hints that
may also be helpful in this condition.
Another small study found some evidence that supplements containing
may increase the effectiveness of in vitro fertilization.
Another study reported that
supplements slightly improved pregnancy rates in women with a condition called "luteal phase defect," but because researchers failed to give the control group a placebo and instead merely left them untreated, the results are not very meaningful.
(For information on why the use of a placebo is essential, see
Why Does this Database rely on Double-Blind Studies?
) Yet another study that had severe defects in design found reported that
may slightly increase fertility.
Stress may lead to infertility, and treatments for reducing
might help increase fertility.
(Lepidium) is widely advocated as a fertility-enhancing herb. However, the only basis for this claim are a few animal studies.
Caffeine avoidance has also been recommended for improving fertility, but there is no evidence as yet that it really helps.
has a long history of traditional use for infertility, but the supporting evidence for its use is weak.
appeared to show that acupuncture can enhance the success rate of
Two better designed studies, however, failed to find acupuncture more effective than placebo.
A 2008 analysis of 7 randomized trials, involving a total of 1,366 patients, found that, on balance, acupuncture may significantly improve the odds of pregnancy in patients undergoing IVF. However, since not all 7 studies used sham (fake) acupuncture as a control, the reliability of this conclusion is thrown in doubt.
Moreover, a second analysis in the same year of 13 randomized controls trials investigating the effectiveness of acupuncture in 2,500 women undergoing a specialized IVF procedure, in which sperm is injected directly into the egg, found no evidence of any benefit.
But the story does not end here. In a subsequent review of 13 trials, a different group of researchers concluded that acupuncture may improve the success rate of IVF, but only if it is used on the day of embryo transfer (when the fertilized egg is placed into the womb).
According to this study, acupuncture is not effective when used up to three days after embryo transfer or when eggs are being retrieved from the ovaries.
Traditional Chinese herbal medicine
also has a long history of use for infertility, but there is little meaningful evidence to indicate that it is effective.
In a 2011 review of 14 randomized trials involving 1,316 women, the addition of Chinese herbal medicine to the prescription medication clomiphene (used to induce ovulation) was associated with increased pregnancy rates.
The researchers pointed out, though, that the studies were of poor quality with low sample sizes.
As with the earlier review, a 2012 analysis of 30 studies, including 8 randomized trials, also found evidence to support the use of Chinese herbal medicine for improving pregnancy rates.
This review included trials that compared Chinese herbal medicine alone, with
, or with standard drug therapy to drug therapy alone. While the researchers concluded that Chinese herbal medicine may improve pregnancy rates, as with the previous review, the quality of the studies was questionable.
: One case report has linked use of a Chinese herbal product with reversible ovarian failure.
Other treatments sometimes recommended for female infertility include
, but there is as yet no evidence that they work.